Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP)
SNP, which stands for Single Nucleotide Polymorphism, refers to a type of genetic variation that occurs in DNA. It involves a single nucleotide (building block) within the DNA sequence being different between individuals. Nucleotides are the molecules that make up DNA, and they are represented by the letters A, T, C, and G, which stand for adenine, thymine, cytosine, and guanine, respectively.
SNPs are the most common form of genetic variation found among people. They can be present throughout the genome, which is the complete set of an organism's DNA. SNPs can have different effects on an individual's traits or susceptibility to certain diseases. They can influence things like physical characteristics, response to medications, and risk of developing certain conditions.
Scientists study SNPs to better understand the genetic basis of various traits and diseases. By identifying and analyzing SNPs, researchers can uncover associations between specific genetic variations and particular traits or diseases. This knowledge can contribute to advancements in personalized medicine, where treatments can be tailored based on an individual's genetic profile.